Spanning Tree Protocol usage

Bridge ID used to select the root bridge in the STP domain and also determine root ports. This ID length is 8 bytes and includes both the priority and the MAC address of the appliance. The default Priority on all tools that run STP version of IEEE is 32768.

To specify the root bridge, the priority of each bridge combined with the MAC address. If two switches or a bridge turns out to have the same priority value, then the MAC address be appraisers to decide who has the lowest ID (which is also the best). Example if there is a switch A and B and both have the same default priority is 32768, then MAC address that will be used for the determination. If the MAC address of the switch A is 0000.0 A 00.1300 and the MAC address of the switch B is A 00.1315 then switch 0000.0 à will become the root bridge.

BPDU are sent by default every 2 seconds, out of all the ports that are active on a bridge and the switch with the lowest bridge ID is selected as the root bridge. We can change the bridge ID with priority how to lose so that he would become the root bridge automatically.
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Spanning Tree Protocol

Spanning Tree Protocol is a protocol that uses the bridge (Spanning Tree Algorithm) STA to find links redundant (backup) dynamically and creating a database spanning-tree topology. Bridge exchange messages BPDU (bridge protocol data units) with another bridge for detecting loop-loop-loop and then loop it by turning off the bridge interfaces are chosen.

Advantages Of Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
1. Avoid High Bandwidth Traffic with segmenting access point via a switch.
2. providing Backup/stand by path for preventing loops and the switches failed/failing.
3. Prevent looping.
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Class and Routing Protocol

Posted under Network security

Routing protocols help routers learn routes must pass when going through a certain route. Each router initially only know the route on a subnet that is connected with it. Then, each router can exchange messages that contain a list of routes in its table routing.

When a router receives a routing update message from another router, the router will learn the message routing, and if there is a route in the message that does not exist in its table routing, then the router will be added to the routing table.

Classfull Routing
Classfull is IP Address divider method based on the IP Address class where reaching billions were split into five classes, which are:
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Network Routing

Posted under Network security

Routing is a protocol that is used to get a route from one network to another network. This route was called the route and route information in dynamic can be given to another router or can be assigned statically to the other router.

Routing is divided into two types, which are Static routing and dynamic routing:

Static Routing

On static routing, the router forwards the packet from a network to another based on network route (Note: as a route on a city bus) that is specified by the administrator. Static routes on the routing is not changed, unless changed manually by an administrator.
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Posted under Hardware

SCOP or Stream Cipher Optimized for Intel Pentium, created by Simeon Maltchev and Peter v. t. Antonov, developed special so efficient in software performance on Intel Pentium processors. SCOP can theoretically do 1.5 clock cycles per byte.

Cipher scheme is designed with an S-box is key dependent, with the first part is changed dynamically in the encryption process, and part is a static section. This works in the internal Cipher-feedback mode (IFB). Keystream consists of a 32-bit word and the produced independently of message encryption. Encryption algorithms are not patentable and SCOP can be used on a variety of usage without payment of royalties to the creators.
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